Devenport, Jennifer L., Veronica Stinson, and Brian L. Cutler (2002), "How Effective Are the Cross-Examination and Expert Testimony Safeguards? Jurors’ Perceptions of the Suggestiveness and Fairness of Biased Lineup Procedures.", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1042-1054.
Drag & Drop to move Foil bias: Absent foil bias
- The police officer testified to selecting foils on the basis of five dimensions of the suspect: skin tone, height, weight, hair color, and facial hair. He stated that the lineup members were selected if they matched on the five characteristics mentioned by the witness but varied on characteristics not mentioned by the witness.