Devenport, Jennifer L., Veronica Stinson, and Brian L. Cutler (2002), "How Effective Are the Cross-Examination and Expert Testimony Safeguards? Jurors’ Perceptions of the Suggestiveness and Fairness of Biased Lineup Procedures.", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1042-1054.
Drag & Drop to move Instruction bias: Absent instruction bias
- The police officer testified that he read standard instructions to the witness. These instructions informed the witness that she would be seeing a lineup of men that might or might not contain the person who committed the crime. The officer testified that he instructed the witness that hairstyles, beards, and mustaches could be easily changed and that she should look at each lineup member carefully and tell him whether or not she saw the person who committed the crime.